To get rid of Najaasate Hukmiyya by making use of clean earth or clay in a special way is called Tayammum.
Tayammum is permitted when water is not available or when the use of water is injurious to health.
 Tayammum is permitted in the following cases
1. When water is not available within a radius of approximately one point seven kilometres (l.7km).
2. When there is fear of an enemy or a dangerous animal or a snake is near the water.
3. When the water is so little that, if the water is used up for Wudhu or Ghusl then there is fear of thirst.
4. When there is no rope or bucket to draw water from a well or one cannot reach water that is nearby (due to some reason) and no other person is available to fetch the water.
5. When it is known by ones own experience or a capable doctor says that the use of water would definitely be injurious to ones health.
6. When one does not have sufficient amount of money to pay for water which is being sold.
7. If water is sold at a very ridiculous price.
8. One is at a place where there is no water. He himself guesses or someone tells him that water is available within approximately one mile. It will now be necessary to fetch water and perform Wudhu.
9. It will not be necessary to fetch water if:
a) There is no trace of water,
b) No one is present to give information regarding water,
c) It is believed that water will be found after a distance of approximately l mile or more.
- Tayammum will now be permissible for Wudhu.
10. If so little water is available that a person can only carry out the four Faraa'idh of Wudhu, then Tayammum is not permissible.
11. If something Najis had fallen on the ground or sand etc. it is not permissible to use that earth for Tayammum even if it dries up. But Salaah on that place is permissible after it has become dry.
12. lf there is very little water and one is in need of Ghusl or Wudhu and his clothes and body is also Najis (Napaak) what should one do? First, One should wash off the Najaasat from ones body and clothes and then do Tayammum.
 Faraa'idh (Compulsory acts) Tayammum
There are three Faraa'idh (Compulsory Acts) of Tayammum:
1. Niyyat (intention).
2. Striking both hands on earth and rubbing them on the face.
3. Striking both hands on earth and rubbing both forearms including the elbows
 Masnoon way of Tayammum
Recite: بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم and make Niyyat.
For Ghusl one should make the intention: "I am making Tayammum for Ghusl".
For Wudhu one should make the intention: "I am making Tayammum for Wudhu"
Make Niyyat or intention in the following way: "O Allah, I am making Tayammum for Wwudhu or Ghusl, to perform my Salaah or recite the Qur'aan Shareef, etc."
Strike both hands on clean earth or dust. Then dust the hands and blow off the excess dust or earth on the hands.
Rub both the hands over the complete face without leaving a hair's breadth of space.
Strike both hands again on the ground.
Then dust the hands and blow off the excess dust.
Rub the left hand over the complete right hand including the elbow.
Rub the right hand over the complete left-hand including the elbow.
Then do Khilaal of fingers. If one is wearing a ring it is necessary to remove it or at least revolve it.
It is Sunnat to do Khilaal of the beard also.
- Tayammum is allowed for both Wudhu and Ghusl.
 Items on which Tayammum is permitted
1. Taahir earth.
5. Baked earthen pots (Unglazed).
6. Walls of mud, stone or brick.
8. All items which have thick dust on them.
 Items on which Twayammum is not Permitted
4. Food items.
5. All items, which burn to ash, rot or melt. Things on which Tayammum is allowed need not be covered with dust.
If there is a stone, brick or clay pot, it can be used for Tayammum even after it was washed clean and has no dust on it.
Tayammum is permissible if one is on the point of missing the Janaza Salaah or Eidain Salaah. There is no Qadaa for these two Salaah.
It will not be necessary to repeat the Salaah already performed should water be found after the Salaah.
The duration of Tayammum, is as long as water is not available or the helplessness continues. This can last for years.
 Nawaqise (Breakers of) Tayammum
Things which break Wudhu also break Tayammum.
Tayammum for Ghusl breaks only after Hadath Akbar.
Tayammum done when water is not found breaks when water is found.
Tayammum done due to a disease breaks when one is cured from that disease.
One can perform any number of Salaah by one Tayammum as long as it does not break.
Tayammum done for Fardh Salaah will be valid for Nafl, for reading the Holy Quraan, Janaza Salaah, Sajda-E-Tilaawat and for all other kinds of Salaah.
 Masah on the Khuf-fain (Mozah-Socks)
 The Conditions for Masah
1. The socks must be strong enough to enable walking in them on roads for approximately three miles without the socks tearing.
2. The socks should remain in position (covering the foreleg) without being tied. They should not slip. Socks which have elastic sewn into them (to keep them in position) will be regarded as being tied.
3. Water must not be able to seep through.
4. The socks must not be transparent or even semi-transparent.
- If any one of the four conditions is lacking, Masah on such socks will not be permissible. Khuffain on which Masah is made are generally made of leather, The type of socks - woollen, nylon etc generally worn nowadays are not classified as "Khuffain". It is, therefore, not permissible to make Masah on them. If socks are made of a material other than leather and the afore-mentioned four requirements are met, Masah will be permissible on them.
- For the Masah Alal Khuffain to be valid it is essential to put on the Khuffain after complete Wudhu has been made.
If the Khuffain have been put on before a complete Wudhu has been made, Masah on them will not be permissible. Firstly, a complete Wudhu has to be made, then only should the Khuffain be put on. Thereafter if Wudhu breaks, it will be permissible to make Masah Alal Khuffain without washing the feet when Wudhu is being made.
- For a Muqeem (one who is not a traveller-Musaafir) Masah Alal Khuffain is valid for a period of 24 hours.
- For a Musaafir the period permissible is 72 hours.
- The period of 24 or 72 hours will be reckoned from the time the Wudhu (after which the Khuffain were put on) breaks, not from the time the Khuffain were put on.For example, a Muqeem makes Wudhu at 6 p.m. and after completing his Wudhu he puts on Khuffain. At 8 p.m. his Wudhu breaks. Twenty-four hours will be reckoned from 8 p. m. Hence, it will be permissible for him to make Masah Alal Khuffain each time he takes Wudhu until 8 p.m. the next day.
- Upon expiry of 24 hours Masah Alal Khuffain will no longer be valid. When the period of (24 hours for the Muqeem and 72 hours for the Musaafir) expires, the Khuffain should be removed and the Feet washed. It is not necessary to renew the Wudhu.
 The Method of Masah alal Khuffain is as follows
- Draw the fingers of the right hand on the upper surface of the Khuffain starting from the toes and ending (the Masah) at the foreleg (just above the ankle). The Masah should be done once only on each sock. The right hand should be used for the right Khuff and the left hand for the left Khuff.
- If the back of the hand was used to make the Masah, it will be valid. However, one should not unnecessarily depart from the correct Sunnah method.
- It is not permissible to make Masah on the side or at the under surface of the Khuffain. It is Fardh to make Masah on each sock to the extent of three full fingers i.e. the full surface area of three fingers must be drawn from the toes to the foreleg.
- The following acts will nullify the Masah which was made on the Khuffain:
1. All things which nullify Wudhu.
2. Removal of the Khuff (sock).
3. The expiry of the period i.e. 24 hours for the Muqeem and 72 hours for the Musaafir.
- If only one sock was removed then too, it is Waajib to remove the other one and wash both feet even if only the foreleg is exposed by lowering the Khuff, it will be regarded as if the whole sock has been removed. It will then be Compulsory to remove the Khuffain and wash both feet.
- Even if the foreleg is exposed by lowering the Khuff, it will be regarded as if the whole sock has been removed. It will then be COMPULSORY to remove the Khuffain and wash both feet.
1. It is not permissible to make Masah on a Khuff which is torn to such an extent that an area equal to the size of three small toes is exposed. It is permissible to make Masah on the sock if it is torn less than this.
2. If the seam of the Khuff comes loose, but while walking the foot is not exposed, Masah on such Khuffain will be valid.
3. If a Muqeem who has made Masah Alal Khuffain goes on a journey before the expiry of 24 hours, then his Masah may be extended to 72 hours. His Masah will now be valid for 72 hours.
4. If a Musaafir who has made Masah Alal Khuffain returns to his home town then his Masah will be valid for only 24 hours.
5. It is permissible to make Masah on ordinary woollen etc, socks which have been covered with leather.
6. If Ghusl becomes compulsory then Masah Alal Khuffain will not be permissible even if the valid period has not yet expired. The Khuffain must be removed when the Ghusl is taken and the feet washed.
7. If after making Masah one sets foot in a puddle of water and water enters the Khuff wetting more than half the foot, then Masah will be nullified. Both Khuffain must be removed and the feet washed.